As survival rates among pediatric organ transplant recipients increase, so do the rates of cutaneous malignancies later in life for this population, who are at a greater risk for skin cancers that include nonmelanoma skin cancers (NMSCs), melanoma, Kaposi sarcoma, and anogenital carcinoma, according to the authors of a literature review.
In studies, skin cancers account for 13%-55% of all cancers in pediatric organ transplant recipients (POTRs), according to Alexander L. Fogel of Stanford (Calif.) University and his coauthors. The review article provides an update on this topic, as well as information on the prevention and management of skin cancers in this population, and the differences between this group and adult organ transplant recipients (AOTRs).
NMSC is the most common type of skin cancer in the pediatric group – and the second most common type of malignancy (NMSCs are the most common type of cancer affecting adult organ transplant recipients). NMSCs typically appear an average of 12-18 years post transplantation in this population (at an average age of 26-34 years). Length of posttransplantation follow-up, sunlight exposure, fair skin, and Northern European ancestry are among the factors associated with increased risk. This type of cancer involves the lip nearly twice as often as in adult recipients: 23% vs. 12%. The pediatric cohort also experiences more nonmelanoma cancer spreading to the lymph nodes than do adults: 9% vs. 6%.
Among pediatric transplant recipients, squamous cell carcinomas appear 2.8 times more often than basal cell carcinomas, “a trend that is opposite that observed in the nontransplant population,” the authors wrote.
In one study, anogenital carcinomas accounted for 4% of posttransplant cancers in this cohort, at an average of 12 years after the transplant, at a mean age of 27 years.
Some data indicate that in adult transplant recipients, there is an association between the human papillomavirus, and anal and genital warts and posttransplant anogenital cancer, but there are little data looking at this association in the pediatric group, the authors noted.
Although melanoma and Kaposi sarcoma are also found in this cohort at rates greater than in the general population, and are associated with high mortality rates, the data are too few to draw conclusions, the authors wrote.
In 2014, 1,795 pediatric solid organ transplants were performed, accounting for 6% of all such transplants. The absolute number of pediatric transplants has remained fairly stable over 5 years, yet very little pediatric-specific literature exists for prevention and management of skin cancers post transplantation, the authors pointed out.
Changing immunosuppressive medications used in transplantation may be effective in reducing skin cancer risk, they said, noting that including rapamycin inhibitors in combination therapy has been shown to reduce the risk of developing skin cancers in some transplant patients by more than half.
The authors emphasized that regular sunscreen use and dermatologic checkups are also essential in this population, and that “the importance of regular dermatologic evaluation should be stressed to patients and their families.”
Mr. Fogel’s coauthors were Mari Miyar, MD, of the department of dermatology, Kaiser Permanente, San Jose, Calif., and Joyce Teng, MD, of the departments of dermatology and pediatrics, Stanford. The authors had no disclosures listed, and no funding source for the review was listed.
This article was updated 12/8/16.