What is the Sunscreen Innovation Act?
In 2014, the US Congress enacted the Sunscreen Innovation Act10 primarily to mandate that the FDA develop a more efficient way to determine the safety and efficacy of new active sunscreen ingredients that were commonly used in Europe and other parts of the world at the time. Many of these agents were thought to be more protective in the UVA and/or UVB spectrum, and if added to the list of GRASE ingredients available to US manufacturers, they would lead to the development of products that would improve the protection offered by sunscreens marketed to US consumers. The time and extent application (TEA) was established, a method that allowed manufacturers to apply for FDA approval of specific agents. The TEA also suggested allowing data generated in other countries where these agents were already in use for years to be considered in the FDA’s evaluation of the agents as GRASE. In addition, Congress mandated that a final monograph on OTC sunscreens be published by the end of 2019. A number of manufacturers have submitted TEAs for new active sunscreen ingredients, and so far, all have been rejected.
Why is the FDA interested in more safety data?
Since then, the FDA has become concerned not only with the safety and efficacy of newly proposed agents through the TEA but also with the original 16 active sunscreen ingredients listed as GRASE in the 2011 final rule. In the 1970s and 1980s, sunscreen use was limited to beach vacations or outdoor sporting events, but sun-protective behaviors have changed dramatically since that time, with health care providers now becoming cognizant of the growing threats of skin cancer and melanoma as well as the cosmetic concerns of photoaging, thereby recommending daily sunscreen use to their patients. In addition, the science behind sunscreens with higher concentrations of active ingredients intended to achieve higher and higher SPFs and their respective penetration of the skin has evolved, leading to new concerns about systemic toxicity. Early limited research frequently touted by the lay media has suggested that some of these agents might lead to hormonal changes, reproductive toxicity, and carcinogenicity.
In November 2016, the FDA issued a guidance for manufacturers that outlined the safety data that would be required to establish an OTC sunscreen active ingredient as GRASE.11 It also provided detailed information about both clinical and nonclinical safety testing, including human irritation and sensitization studies as well as human photosafety studies. In vitro dermal and systemic carcinogenicity studies and animal developmental and reproductive toxicity studies also were required as well studies regarding safety in children.
Many of these recommendations were already being utilized by manufacturers; however, one important change was the requirement for human absorption studies by a maximal usage trial, which more accurately addresses the absorption of sunscreen agents according to actual use. Such studies will be required at the highest allowable concentration of an agent in multiple vehicles and over large body surface areas for considerable exposure times.
This guidance to sunscreen manufacturers was announced to the public in a press release in May 2018.12