No treatment may be necessary for acne in the first few months of life, but the condition can leave scars in children as young as ages 3-6 months, said, professor of dermatology and pediatric dermatology, Penn State University, Hershey, Penn., said in a presentation at MedscapeLive’s virtual Women’s & Pediatric Dermatology Seminar.
Neonatal acne occurs in more than 20% of newborns aged 2 weeks to 3 months. “Typically we don’t need to treat it. But if you do, you could use a topical antifungal like clotrimazole cream twice a day,” but in most babies, “this will just improve over time and resolve without any scarring or sequelae,” she said.
Infantile acne begins about 3-6 months of age typically, or a little bit older, and lasts up to 2 years of age, Dr. Zaenglein said. “You will see comedones in infantile acne, so this is actually a true form of acne. It’s due to increased adrenal production of androgens.”
She added: “The scarring can be permanent. It’s important that you recognize infantile acne and treat it, even though it seems pretty mild.”
For infantile acne, she recommends performing a full-skin exam to rule out hyperandrogenic disorders such as Cushing syndrome, congenital adrenal hyperplasia, premature adrenarche, a gonadal/adrenal tumor and precocious puberty.
Treatments are similar to those in teenagers, she said, “but make sure you use baby-friendly formulations,” with lower concentrations of active ingredients – and avoid tetracyclines and benzoyl peroxide (BPO) washes. BPO can be used in leave-on formulations/creams at lower strengths (2.5%-5%).
One possible combination option is tretinoin 0.025% cream or adapalene 0.1% gel plus BPO 2.5% cream or clindamycin/BPO gel. Another combination is adapalene/BPO 2.5% gel.
Erythromycin can be appropriate at 30-50 mg/kg per day divided in two or three doses a day, but beware of possible gastrointestinal upset. Azithromycin at 5 mg/kg per day is another option.
“Rarely do we have to go to isotretinoin,” Dr. Zaenglein said. “I think in all my years, I’ve only treated one baby with isotretinoin for infantile acne. But severe forms can occur.”
Midchildhood and preadolescent acne conditions occur in children starting at ages 1 up to 10 years, Dr. Zaenglein said. In this population, she also recommends ruling out hyperandrogenism by looking for secondary sexual characteristics with full-body skin exams. “The workup can be broad and includes looking at adrenal androgens and total and free testosterone, as well as looking at growth charts and bone age. Typically, you’ll refer these kids to pediatric endocrinology.”
Keep in mind, she said, that early adrenarche starts at ages 6-7 years in girls and 7-8 years in boys. “That’s when we expect to start seeing that very early acne. You can see it even earlier in patients with elevated BMI, and it’s more common in Hispanic and Black children as well.”
She added that it’s important to remember that early adrenarche is a risk factor for polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS). “So ask patients about their family history and look for other signs of PCOS as they move further into adolescence.”
Milder cases of acne in this age group can be treated with “salicylic acid wipes and things that are kind of a rite of passage. But if they have any more severe acne, you’re going to want to treat it more or less like you do adolescent acne.”
MedscapeLive and this news organization are owned by the same parent company. Dr. Zaenglein disclosed receiving consulting fees from Cassiopea, Dermata, and Regeneron and fees for contracted research support from Incyte.