Even in those not deployed to overseas locations, military work still frequently involves prolonged sun exposure. In a 2015 cross-sectional study of US Air Force maintenance squadrons at Travis Air Force Base in Fairfield, California (N=356), 67% of those surveyed reported having careers that frequently involved direct sun exposure.13 This occupational sun exposure may be worsened by increased UV exposure during recreational activities, as active-duty military servicemembers may reasonably be expected to engage in more outdoor exercise and leisure activities than their civilian counterparts.
Other occupation-specific risk factors also may affect skin cancer rates in certain populations. In a study of aircraft personnel that included male military and civilian pilots, a meta-standardized incidence ratio for melanoma of 3.42 was identified compared to controls not involved in aircraft work.14 Theories to explain this increased incidence of melanoma include increased exposure to ionizing radiation at high altitudes, exposure to aviation-related chemicals, and alterations in circadian rhythm.14,15
This increased sun exposure is compounded by the overall low rates of sun protection among military members. Of those returning from Iraq and Afghanistan in the 2015 study, less than 30% of servicemembers reported routine access to sunscreen, and only 13% stated that they routinely applied sunscreen when exposed to the sun. Of this same group, only 23% endorsed that the military made them very aware of their risk for skin cancer.11 The low rates of sunscreen usage by those deployed to an active combat zone may partially be explained by the assumption that those individuals placed more emphasis on the acute dangers of combat rather than the perceived future dangers of skin cancer. A decreased availability of sunscreen for deployed military servicemembers, particularly those located at small austere bases where supplies are likely to be limited, likely makes the use of sunscreen even more difficult.
However, even within the continental United States, active-duty military servicemembers still exhibit low rates of sunscreen usage. In the 2015 study of US Air Force personnel in maintenance squadrons in California, less than 11% of those surveyed reported using sunscreen most of the time despite high rates of outdoor work.13
Another factor likely contributing to increased sun exposure and decreased sun-protection practices is the so-called invincibility complex, which is a common set of egocentric beliefs that leads to a perception that an individual is not likely to suffer the consequences of engaging in risky behaviors. Despite knowledge of the dangers associated with risky activity, individuals with an invincibility complex are more likely to view potential consequences as relevant only to others, not to themselves.16 A study of adolescent smokers in the Netherlands examined why subjects continue to smoke, despite knowledge of the potentially deadly consequences of smoking. Three common rationalizing beliefs were found: trivialization of the immediate consequences, that their smoking is only temporary and they have time in the future to stop, and that they have control over how much they smoke and can prevent fatal consequences with moderation.17 Such an invincibility complex is thought to directly run counter to the efforts of public health and educational campaigns. This belief set is thought to at least partially explain why adolescents in Australia are the most knowledgeable age cohort regarding the dangers of UV exposure but the least likely to engage in skin-protective measures.18 This inflated sense of invincibility may be leading active-duty military servicemembers to engage in unhealthy sun-exposure practices regardless of knowledge of the associated risks.
Members of the military may be uniquely susceptible to this invincibility complex. Growing evidence suggests that exposure to life-threatening circumstances may lead to long-lasting alterations in threat assessment.19,20 A 2008 study of Iraq veterans returning from deployment found that direct exposure to violent combat and human trauma was associated with an increased perceived degree of invincibility and a higher propensity to engage in risky behaviors after returning from deployment.19 Additionally, it has been speculated that individuals with a higher degree of perceived invincibility may be more likely to pursue military service, as a higher degree of self-confidence in the face of the often dangerous circumstances of military operations may be advantageous.20
In addition to scarce use of sun-protective strategies, military servicemembers also tend to lack awareness of the potential short-term and long-term harm from UV radiation. In a 2016 study of veterans undergoing treatment for skin cancer, patients reported inadequate education about skin cancer risks and strategies to decrease their chances of developing it.21 Sunscreen is less frequently used in males, specifically those aged 18 to 30 years; this demographic makes up 55.7% of the active-duty population.2,22 Low income also has been associated with decreased sunscreen use; junior enlisted military servicemembers (ranks E1-E4) make up 43.8% of the military’s ranks and make less than the average annual American household income.2,23,24
Prevention and Risk-Mitigation Strategies
Although many of the risk factors in the US Military promoting skin cancer are intrinsic to the occupation, certain steps could help minimize servicemembers’ risks. To be effective, any attempt to decrease the risk for skin cancer in the US Military must take into consideration the environment in which the military operates. To complete their mission, military personnel often are required to operate for extended periods outdoors in areas of high UV exposure, such as the deserts of Iraq or the mountains of Afghanistan. Outdoor work at times of peak sunlight often is required for successful mission completion, thus it would be ineffective to simply give blanket advice to avoid sun exposure.