The “maskne” phenomenon – that is, new onset or exacerbation of preexisting acne due to prolonged wearing of protective face masks – has become commonplace during the COVID-19 pandemic. Less well appreciated is that rosacea often markedly worsens, too, Giovanni Damiani, MD, reported at the annual congress of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology.
“This is particularly interesting because two inflammatory dermatoses with different pathogenesis are both mechanically and microbiologically triggered by mask use,” observed Dr. Damiani, a dermatologist at the University of Milan.
He presented. These patients – 23 with papulopustular and 13 with erythematotelangiectatic rosacea – were wearing face masks for at least 6 hours per day during quarantine. Most were using what Dr. Damiani termed “community masks,” meaning they weren’t approved by the European regulatory agency as personal protective equipment.
Every yardstick Dr. Damiani and coinvestigators employed to characterize the patients’ rosacea demonstrated that the dermatosis was significantly worse during the prolonged mask-wearing period. For example, the average prequarantine score on the Global Flushing Severity Scale was 2.56, jumping to 3.97 after a month of masked quarantine. The flushing score climbed from 1.83 to 2.78 in the subgroup with papulopustular rosacea, and from 3.85 to 6.08 in patients with erythematotelangiectatic rosacea. Scores on the Clinician’s Erythema Assessment rose from 1.09 to 1.7 in the papulopustular rosacea patients, and from 2.46 to 3.54 in those with erythematotelangiectatic rosacea.
Scores on the Dermatology Life Quality Index climbed from 7.35 prequarantine to 10.65 in the subgroup with papulopustular rosacea and from 5.15 to 8.69 in patients with erythematotelangiectatic rosacea. Investigator Global Assessment and Patient’s Self-Assessment scores also deteriorated significantly after a month in masked quarantine.
Clinically, the mask-aggravated rosacea, or “maskacea,” was mainly localized to the dorsal lower third of the nose as well as the cheeks. The ocular and perioral areas and the chin were least affected.
Dr. Damiani advised his colleagues to intensify therapy promptly when patients report any worsening of their preexisting rosacea in connection with use of face masks. He has found this condition is often relatively treatment resistant so long as affected patients continue to wear face masks as an essential tool in preventing transmission of COVID-19.
The dermatologist noted that not all face masks are equal offenders when it comes to aggravating common facial dermatoses. During the spring 2020 pandemic quarantine in Milan, 11.6% of 318 mask wearers, none health care professionals, presented to Dr. Damiani and coinvestigators for treatment of facial dermatoses. The facial dermatosis rate was 5.4% among 168 users of masks bearing the European Union CE mark signifying the devices met relevant safety and performance standards, compared with 18.7% in 150 users of community masks with no CE mark. The rate of irritant contact dermatitis was zero with the CE mark masks and 4.7% with the community masks.
During quarantine, however, these patients wore their protective face masks for only a limited time, since for the most part they were restricted to home. In contrast, during the first week after the quarantine was lifted in early May and the daily hours of mask use increased, facial dermatoses were diagnosed in 8.7% of 23 users of CE-approved masks, compared with 45% of 71 wearers of community masks. Dr. Damiani and colleagues diagnosed irritant contact dermatitis in 16% of the community mask wearers post quarantine, but in not a single user of a mask bearing the CE mark.
The National Rosacea Society has issuedon avoiding rosacea flare-ups during the Covid-19 pandemic.
Dr. Damiani reported having no financial conflicts regarding his study.