Hospital Consult

Cutaneous Manifestations of COVID-19: Characteristics, Pathogenesis, and the Role of Dermatology in the Pandemic


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Cutaneous manifestations of COVID-19—SARS-CoV-2—are common and varied. Morbilliform, vesicular, and urticarial eruptions may be nonspecific initial features of the disease. Chilblainlike lesions on the fingers or toes typically occur as part of a resolution phase, signifying a milder course, whereas livedoid lesions and retiform purpura are associated with coaguloapthy and more severe disease. Additionally, a severe Kawasaki-like multisystem inflammatory syndrome rarely is seen in children. This diverse range of cutaneous manifestations in COVID-19 reflects a spectrum of host immunologic responses to SARS-CoV-2 and may inform disease pathophysiology.

Practice Points

  • Cutaneous manifestations of COVID-19 may reflect the range of host immunologic responses to SARS-CoV-2.
  • Perniosis appears to be a late manifestation of COVID-19 associated with a comparatively benign disease course, whereas livedoid or other vasculopathic lesions portend poorer outcomes and may warrant further workup for occult thrombotic disease.
  • Maculopapular, vesicular, and urticarial eruptions may be seen in association with COVID-19 but are nonspecific and necessitate a broad differential and workup.
  • Challenges posed by the COVID-19 pandemic necessitate creative management strategies for immunosuppression and clinical assessment.



The virus that causes COVID-19—SARS-CoV-2—has infected more than 128 million individuals, resulting in more than 2.8 million deaths worldwide between December 2019 and April 2021. Disease mortality primarily is driven by hypoxemic respiratory failure and systemic hypercoagulability, resulting in multisystem organ failure.1 With more than 17 million Americans infected, the virus is estimated to have impacted someone within the social circle of nearly every American.2

The COVID-19 pandemic has highlighted resource limitations, delayed elective and preventive care, and rapidly increased the adoption of telemedicine, presenting a host of new challenges to providers in every medical specialty, including dermatology. Although COVID-19 primarily is a respiratory disease, clinical manifestations have been observed in nearly every organ, including the skin. The cutaneous manifestations of COVID-19 provide insight into disease diagnosis, prognosis, and pathophysiology. In this article, we review the cutaneous manifestations of COVID-19 and explore the state of knowledge regarding their pathophysiology and clinical significance. Finally, we discuss the role of dermatology consultants in the care of patients with COVID-19, and the impact of the pandemic on the field of dermatology.

Prevalence of Cutaneous Findings in COVID-19

Early reports characterizing the clinical presentation of patients hospitalized with COVID-19 suggested skin findings associated with the disease were rare. Cohort studies from Europe, China, and New York City in January through March 2020 reported a low prevalence or made no mention of rash.3-7 However, reports from dermatologists in Italy that emerged in May 2020 indicated a substantially higher proportion of cutaneous disease: 18 of 88 (20.4%) hospitalized patients were found to have cutaneous involvement, primarily consisting of erythematous rash, along with some cases of urticarial and vesicular lesions.8 In October 2020, a retrospective cohort study from Spain examining 2761 patients presenting to the emergency department or admitted to the hospital for COVID-19 found that 58 (2.1%) patients had skin lesions attributed to COVID-19.9

The wide range in reported prevalence of skin lesions may be due to variable involvement of dermatologic specialists in patient care, particularly in China.10 Some variation also may be due to variability in the timing of clinical examination, as well as demographic and clinical differences in patient populations. Of note, a multisystem inflammatory disease seen in US children subsequent to infection with COVID-19 has been associated with rash in as many as 74% of cases.11 Although COVID-19 disproportionately impacts people with skin of color, there are few reports of cutaneous manifestations in that population,12 highlighting the challenges of the dermatologic examination in individuals with darker skin and suggesting the prevalence of dermatologic disease in COVID-19 may be greater than reported.

Morphologic Patterns of Cutaneous Involvement in COVID-19

Researchers in Europe and the United States have attempted to classify the cutaneous manifestations of COVID-19. A registry established through the American Academy of Dermatology published a compilation of reports from 31 countries, totaling 716 patient profiles.13 A prospective Spanish study detailed the cutaneous involvement of 375 patients with suspected or confirmed COVID-19.14 Together, these efforts have revealed several distinct patterns of cutaneous involvement associated with COVID-19 (Table).9,15-18

Cutaneous Manifestations of COVID-19

Vesicular Rash
Vesicular rash associated with COVID-19 has been described in several studies and case series8,13,14 and is considered, along with the pseudopernio (or pseudochilblains) morphology, to be one of the more disease-specific patterns in COVID-19.14,18 Vesicular rash appears to comprise roughly one-tenth of all COVID-19–associated rashes.13,14 It usually is described as pruritic, with 72% to 83% of patients reporting itch.13,16

Small monomorphic or polymorphic vesicles predominantly on the trunk and to a lesser extent the extremities and head have been described by multiple authors.14,16 Vesicular rash is most common among middle-aged individuals, with studies reporting median and mean ages ranging from 40.5 to 55 years.9,13,14,16

Vesicular rash develops concurrent with or after other presenting symptoms of COVID-19; in 2 studies, vesicular rash preceded development of other symptoms in only 15% and 5.6% of cases, respectively.13,14 Prognostically, vesicular rash is associated with moderate disease severity.14,16 It may persist for an average of 8 to 10 days.14,16,18

Histopathologic examination reveals basal layer vacuolar degeneration, hyperchromatic keratinocytes, acantholysis, and dyskeratosis.9,16,18


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