Conference Coverage

Melanoma presents at later stages, but at an earlier age in Asian Americans


 

FROM SOC SOCIETY 2021

Asian Americans with melanoma presented at a younger age but with higher rates of invasive disease and at later stages of disease, compared with non-Hispanic Whites, according to a secondary analysis of data from the National Cancer Institute’s Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) program.

The findings are consistent with previous studies indicating delayed detection of melanoma in Asians, compared with non-Hispanic Whites, and provide a window into Asian American communities specifically, Erica M. Lin, a medical student at Brown University, Providence, R.I., said at the annual Skin of Color Society Symposium. The majority of studies on melanoma in Asians have originated in Asia, noted Ms. Lin, whose coauthor was Eunyoung Cho, ScD, an associate professor in the department of dermatology and director of the clinical and translational research program at Brown University. Their analysis covered registries from 10 geographic areas representing 54% of the U.S. Asian American population over a 25-year period, from 1990 to 2014.

Asian Americans with melanoma were more likely to present at an invasive stage than non-Hispanic Whites (82.9% vs. 72.2%, P < .001), and they were significantly more likely to present when the disease had progressed to a distant stage (9.39% vs. 2.51%, P < .001), even though they were of younger ages at the time of those diagnoses, Ms. Lin reported at the meeting. (The numbers do not account for unknown or unstaged melanoma cases.)

Significantly fewer Asian Americans presented at the “in situ” stage, compared with non-Hispanic Whites (17.11% vs. 27.78%). The lower extremities were the most common site in Asian Americans, compared with the trunk in Non-Hispanic Whites.

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The SEER registries covered the eight largest Asian American groups: Asian Indians/Pakistanis, Chinese, Filipinos, Japanese, Kampucheans (Cambodians), Koreans, Laotians, and Vietnamese. Melanoma was more common in females across the groups (53% of females vs. 47% of males), with the exception of Asian Indians/Pakistanis.

While melanoma increased significantly over time among non-Hispanic Whites – a mean 24% increase per 5-year period – there was “no significant change in melanoma rates in Asians,” Ms. Lin said.

The lack of increase in Asian American communities combined with the other findings is “potentially concerning” and suggests “that there may be cases that are not being identified,” she said in an interview after the meeting. In their abstract, she and Dr. Cho noted that their findings underscore the need for further prevention, screening, and surveillance measures.

The NCI’s SEER program is a coordinated system of cancer registries across the United States that collects data on every case of cancer reported in 19 geographic areas.

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