Using high-intensity focused electromagnetic (HIFEM) technology to strengthen pelvic floor muscles for the improvement of urinary incontinence (UI) and female sexual function was safe and effective at 9 months follow-up, results from a multicenter study showed.
“The pelvic floor consists of three pairs of muscles: the pubococcygeus, the iliococcygeus, and the puborectalis,” lead study author, and a diplomate of the American Board of Obstetics & Gynecology, said during the annual conference of the American Society for Laser Medicine and Surgery. “They control continence through support of pelvic organs. The urethra, the vagina, and the rectum pass through that diaphragm. It also contributes to sexual sensation and arousal. A deconditioning of the pelvic floor is usually the result of child-bearing years or aging, which usually results in urinary incontinence and impairment of sexual function. The noninvasive strengthening of the pelvic floor muscles helps to regain muscle tone and strength.”
In a prospective, open-label, single-arm study conducted at four sites, Dr. Berenholz, medical director of the Michigan Center for Women’s Health in Farmington Hills, and colleagues investigated the long-term effectiveness of HIFEM-induced pelvic floor muscle (PFM) strengthening for improvement of UI and sexual function. HIFEM selectively targets neuromuscular tissue and induces supramaximal PFM contractions that cannot be achieved voluntarily, he said, causing muscle strengthening due to muscle fiber hypertrophy, which helps patients to better isolate and command their muscles.
The study population consisted of 33 females with a mean age of 49 years who had UI and UI-related problems in sexual life. They received six 28-minute HIFEM treatments of the pelvic floor with the, which is FDA cleared for both stress and urge incontinence. The frequency of visits was two treatments per week and the intensity of HIFEM was adjusted between 0% and 100% based on the patient’s tolerance threshold. Evaluations were conducted at baseline, after the last treatment, at 1, 3, 6, and 9 months. The primary outcomes were change in urine leakage based on the International Consultation on Incontinence Questionnaire–Short Form (ICIQ-UI-SF) and change in sexual function based on the Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI) and the Pelvic Organ Prolapse/Urinary Incontinence Sexual Questionnaire (PISQ-12). Secondary endpoints were adverse events and the comfort of therapy based on a 7-point Likert scale.
Dr. Berenholz reported that from baseline the severity of UI based on the ICIQ-SF significantly decreased 60% by a mean of 8.1 points between baseline and 9 months (P < .001). At 1 month, the FSFI score improved 32% by a mean of 7.1 points (P < .001) and was sustained throughout the study. The most prominent changes were seen in the subdomains of desire, arousal, lubrication, and orgasm response.
The PISQ-12 score incrementally increased 25% to a mean improvement of 8.2 points at 9 months (P < .001). Subjects improved most in the emotive subdomain, reporting more frequent orgasms, increased desire, and sexual excitement. The minimal important difference was 6 points.
“This is a true paradigm shift in the treatment of incontinence and sexual dysfunction,” Dr. Berenholz said. “The therapy was safe, comfortable, no adverse events emerged, and 31 subjects (94%) described the therapy as comfortable. Interim data suggest that treatment effect was maintained for 9 months, and there were no significant declines in scores in the long term. The upcoming 12-month follow-up data will let us know if more maintenance therapy is needed.”
During a question-and-answer session, one of the abstract section chairs,, wondered about the potential for combination treatments in this patient population. “I can imagine that something that is working on the muscle tone has a totally different mechanism than something that is working on the mucosa and the underlying tissue without really affecting the muscle,” said Dr. Wolkerstorfer, a dermatologist at the Netherlands Institute for Pigment Disorders, department of dermatology, University of Amsterdam. “Would a combination be the way to go?”
Dr. Berenholz said that he sometimes combines HIFEM with the ULTRA Femme 360, a radiofrequency thermal energy device. “We thought this addresses two issues,” he said. “One is fascial muscle, which is the underlying structural issue for incontinence. The other is thermal energy to aid in incontinence prevention by inducing production of elastin and collagen in the midurethra, but also to promote lubrication and heightened sensitivity in the patient who’s either menopausal or has undergone chemotherapy for breast cancer.”
Dr. Berenholz reported having no financial disclosures. Dr. Wolkerstorfer disclosed that he has received consulting fees from Lumenis and InCyte and equipment from Humeca and PerfAction Technologies. He has also received grant funding from Novartis and InCyte and he is a member of InCyte’s advisory board.