Psoriasis patients aged 0 to 79 years have a greater overall risk for malignancy compared with patients without psoriasis.32 Patients with psoriasis have an increased risk for respiratory tract cancer, upper aerodigestive tract cancer, urinary tract cancer, and non-Hodgkin lymphoma.33 A mild association exists between PsA and lymphoma, nonmelanoma skin cancer (NMSC), and lung cancer.34 More severe psoriasis is associated with greater risk for lymphoma and NMSC. Dermatologists are recommended to educate patients on their risk for certain malignancies and to refer patients to specialists upon suspicion of malignancy.
Risk for malignancy has been shown to be affected by psoriasis treatments. Patients treated with UVB have reduced overall cancer rates for all age groups (hazard ratio, 0.52; P=.3), while those treated with psoralen plus UVA have an increased incidence of squamous cell carcinoma.32,33 Adalimumab was correlated with increased risk for NMSC in patients with psoriasis but did not have an increased risk for all cancers collectively when used for various immune-mediated inflammatory diseases.35 In contrast, a meta-analysis of randomized clinical trials found no association with TNF inhibitor use and NMSC.36 Ustekinumab had no association with malignancy.37 Treatment history should be elucidated because of higher rates of squamous cell carcinoma in patients with prior psoralen plus UVA, cyclosporine, or methotrexate use.33 To address malignancy risk, patients with psoriasis should undergo regular screenings for skin cancer and follow national guidelines for age-appropriate cancer screenings.
Lifestyle Choices and QOL
A crucial aspect of successful psoriasis management is patient education. The strongest recommendations support lifestyle changes, such as smoking cessation and limitation of alcohol use. A tactful discussion regarding substance use, work productivity, interpersonal relationships, and sexual function can address substantial effects of psoriasis on QOL so that support and resources can be provided.
Management of psoriasis is multifaceted and involves screening, education, monitoring, and collaboration with PCPs and specialists. Regular follow-up with a dermatologist and PCP is strongly recommended for patients with psoriasis given the systemic nature of the disease. The 2019 AAD-NPF recommendations provide important information for dermatologists to coordinate care for complicated psoriasis cases, but clinical judgment is paramount when making medical decisions. The consideration of comorbidities is critical for developing a comprehensive treatment approach, and this approach will lead to better health outcomes and improved QOL for patients with psoriasis.