In January 2022, the US Preventive Services Task Force updated its 2018 statement on screening for atrial fibrillation (AF) in older adults (≥ 50 years).1,2 The supporting evidence review sought to include data on newer screening methods, such as automated blood pressure cuffs, pulse oximeters, and consumer-facing devices (eg, smartphone apps). However, ultimately, the recommendation did not change; it remains an “I” statement, meaning the evidence is insufficient to assess the balance of benefits and harms of screening for AF in asymptomatic adults with no signs or symptoms.1,2
Atrial fibrillation and stroke. AF is common, and the prevalence increases with age: from < 0.2% in those younger than 55 years to about 10% for those ages 85 and older.1,2 AF is a strong risk factor for stroke, and when detected, stroke prevention measures—either restoration of normal rhythm or use of anticoagulants—can be implemented as appropriate.
The available evidence for the effectiveness of stroke prevention comes from patients with AF that was detected because of symptoms or pulse palpation during routine care. It is not known if screening asymptomatic adults using electrocardiography, or newer electronic devices that detect irregular heartbeats, achieves these same benefits—and there is the potential for harm from the use of anticoagulants.
How does this compare to other recommendations? The American Heart Association and the American Stroke Association recommend active screening for AF, by pulse assessment, in those ages 65 years and older.3 This does not differ as much as it appears to from the USPSTF statement. The difference is in terminology: The USPSTF considers pulse assessment part of routine care; the other organizations call it “screening.”
What you should—and shouldn’t—do. The USPSTF states that “Clinicians should use their clinical judgement regarding whether to screen and how to screen for AF.” Any patient with signs or symptoms of AF or who is discovered to have an irregular pulse should be assessed for AF. Those found to have AF should be assessed for their risk of stroke and treated accordingly. However, attempting to find “silent” AF in those who do not have an irregular pulse on exam, by way of any screening devices, has no proven benefit.