The Effect of Treatment Facility and Race on Survival for Signet Ring Cell Carcinoma of the Esophagus: An Analysis of the National Cancer Database

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BACKGROUND: Signet ring cell carcinoma of the esophagus (SRCCE) is an aggressive tumor that represents approximately 3.5-5.0% of all esophageal cancers. Prior studies have shown a strong correlation between treating facility and survival for different cancers, but this has not been studied in SRCCE. The goal of this study is to assess differences in survival based on the type of treatment facility.

METHODS: There were 1,442 patients with SRCCE identified using the histology 8490 and topography codes C15.0-C15.9 in the National Cancer Database (NCDB). Descriptive analysis, Kaplan-Meier curves, and a multivariable Cox hazard regression analysis were all utilized to determine the significance and impact of treatment facility type, race, age, sex, tumor stage, use of adjuvant or neoadjuvant radiation, and surgical margins on survival.

RESULTS: The cohort was mostly male (86.6%) and Non-Hispanic Caucasian (96.3%) with 52.7% receiving treatment at academic centers followed by 35.9% at community programs and 11.4% at integrated cancer programs. As age increased, mortality also increased (HR = 1.02; 95% CI: 1.01-1.02, p < 0.001). Both Hispanic Caucasians (HR = 2.09; 95% CI: 1.21-3.62, = 0.009) and Africans Americans (HR = 1.69; 95% CI: 1.04-2.75, = 0.036) had an increased risk of mortality when compared to Non-Hispanic Caucasians. Patients at academic facilities demonstrated a decreased risk of mortality when compared to community programs (HR = 0.73; 95% CI: 0.63-0.86, p < 0.001) and integrated cancer programs (HR = 0.74; 95% CI: 0.60- 0.93, = 0.008).

CONCLUSION: For patients diagnosed with SRCCE, receiving treatment at academic centers resulted in better survival probabilities compared to nonacademic facilities. Older patients, African Americans and Hispanic Caucasians, increasing tumor stage, positive surgical margins, and comorbidities with Charlson- Deyo scores of 1 and 2+ were all associated with an increased risk of mortality from SRCCE.

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