WASHINGTON – Probiotics are generally used in relatively nontargeted, nonspecific ways. But with the gut microbiome being an integral component of a budding precision medicine model of care, and with “multi-omics” research picking up, this is bound to change, gastroenterologist Purna C. Kashyap, MBBS, said in an interview after the 2022 Gut Microbiota for Health World Summit, organized by the American Gastroenterological Association and the European Society of Neurogastroenterology and Motility.
“There are so many missing pieces of information because, at the very basic level, we don’t know exactly how gut bacteria drive diseases,” he told GI & Hepatology News.
“The idea is to go toward a more precise, accurate approach where the newer generation of probiotics are designed to target a specific process, like block a microbial pathway that contributes to disease pathogenesis, or produce a metabolite that improves host function,” he said. “It’s this shift that is going on in the field. It’s already started, and it has momentum.” Dr. Kashyap is a professor of medicine and physiology at the Mayo Clinic College of Medicine in Rochester, Minn., and codirector of the institution’s microbiome program.
In a keynote lecture at the meeting, Dr. Kashyap said that the current approach to precision medicine, which aims to tailor treatments to defined subgroups of patients, needs to take into account “much more than the human genome.”
To the extent possible, it needs to consider the host (lifestyle, gene variants, etc.), the microbiome, and the exposome (environmental exposures such as diet, medications, and air and water quality).
The microbiome’s relative contribution to any one disease, in turn, likely varies from one individual or subgroup to another, he said.
Researchers are increasingly working with different layers of data and using machine learning methods and artificial intelligence approaches to integrate clinical data and “omics” measurements (e.g., from genome, proteome, metabolome).
Such approaches can help pinpoint the microbiome’s relative contributions, identify microbial-host behaviors and microbial-driven disease mechanisms, and ultimately personalize treatment approaches, Dr. Kashyap said.
For instance, Dr. Kashyap’s team has taken a multi-omics approach to studying patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Thus far, their research has identified subtype-specific variation in microbial composition and function, and by integrating omics from the host and microbiome, it has confirmed the role of several microbial pathways in subtypes of IBS.
His team has also identified a new pathway – the host and gut microbiota’s modulation of purine metabolism – as a potential driver of symptoms in patients with IBS (), he said.
Such findings provide opportunities to develop new microbial therapeutics – by engineering bacteria to produce metabolites that target a specific pathway, for instance, he said.
Predicting probiotic engraftment
Understanding the extent to which microbes actually engraft in the gut – and the forces governing engraftment – is part of a rational approach to designing future probiotic cocktails and to moving toward personalized, precision medicine, Eric Alm, PhD, said during a plenary session on the future of probiotics, moderated by Dr. Kashyap. Dr. Alm is a professor of biological, civil, and environmental engineering who directs the Center for Microbiome Informatics and Therapeutics at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in Cambridge.