HOLLYWOOD, FLA. – Incompatible Type A plasma appears to be a safe and effective part of an initial resuscitation protocol for trauma patients who need a massive transfusion.
There were no increases in morbidity, mortality, or transfusion-related acute lung injury among 120 patients who received Type A plasma, compared with those who got compatible plasma,, said at the annual scientific assembly of the Eastern Association for the Surgery of Trauma.
Type AB blood products are preferred for initial transfusions for trauma patients with unknown blood type. While type AB blood products are universally acceptable to patients, they are also in short supply. In an attempt to mitigate this shortage, some trauma centers are relying on anecdotal data, much drawn from real-life combat experience dating from World War II to present times, suggesting that Type A plasma is safe for initial resuscitation protocols. But the body of data from well-constructed trials is small, said Dr. Morse of Emory University, Atlanta. Thus, EAST sponsored this retrospective registry study, which examined outcomes in 1,536 trauma patients who received plasma transfusions as part of a massive transfusion protocol from 2012 to 2016.
The primary endpoints were overall morbidity, and mortality at four time points: 6 and 24 hours, and 7 and 28 days. Eight trauma centers contributed data to the study.
The group was largely male (75%) with a mean age of 37 years. Patients were seriously injured, with a mean Injury Severity Score (ISS) of 25. About 60% suffered from blunt-force trauma. Among the entire group, 120 (8%) received incompatible type A plasma.
About 28% of patients (434) experienced an adverse event. These were numerically but not significantly more common among the incompatible A plasma group (35% vs. 28%; P = .14). Events included acute respiratory distress syndrome (6% vs. 7.6%), thromboembolism (9% vs. 7%), pneumonia (19% vs. 15%), and acute kidney injury (8% each).
There were two cases of transfusion-related acute lung injury, both of which occurred in the compatible type A group.
Mortality was similar at every time point: 6 hours (16% vs. 15%), 24 hours (25% vs. 22%), 7 days (35% vs. 32%), and 28 days (38% vs. 35%).
A multivariate regression model controlled for treatment center, ISS, units of packed red cells given by 4 hours, mechanism of injury, Type A plasma incompatibility, and age.
In the morbidity analysis, only ISS and units of red blood cells at 4 hours were associated with a significant increase in risk (odd ratio 1.02). Incompatible Type A plasma did not significantly increase the risk of morbidity.
In the mortality analysis, units of red cells, ISS, and age were significantly associated with increased risk. Again, incompatible Type A plasma did not significantly increase the risk of death.
Dr. Morse had no financial declaration.