A network meta-analysis of current first-line dual, triple, and quadruple therapies for Helicobacter pylori infection found that vonoprazan triple therapy was most effective, while triple therapy of a proton pump inhibitor (PPI), amoxicillin, and clarithromycin was least effective. Levofloxacin-containing triple therapy performed best in Western countries and West Asia, while reverse hybrid therapy was most effective in East Asia.
The results “[suggest that] a new approach concerning H. pylori treatment is now needed and that the time for transitioning from trial and error to antimicrobial stewardship [of H. pylori infection] has arrived,” wroteof the European University of Cyprus in Engomi, and colleagues. Their was published in Gastroenterology.
H. pylori infection is the primary cause of gastritis, peptic ulcer disease, gastric mucosa–associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma, and gastric cancer.
Since H. pylori infection was first recognized, physicians have employed a range of drugs in double, triple, and quadruple combinations to combat it.
Despite those efforts, treatment success is lower than with many other infectious diseases. A newcomer is the potassium-competing acid blocker vonoprazan, which increases efficacy of amoxicillin combination therapies and has, thereby, generated renewed interest in all combination therapies, according to the study authors. Vonoprazan is currently available in some Asian countries, but not the United States or Europe.
Current guidelines for H. pylori treatment relied on randomized controlled trials and relevant pair-wise meta-analyses, but no previous pairwise analysis has included all currently available medications, the authors noted. Network meta-analyses can help fill this evidence gap: They incorporate both direct and indirect evidence from a collection of randomized controlled trials to estimate the comparative effectiveness of three or more regimens.
The researchers conducted a network meta-analysis that included 68 randomized, controlled trials totaling 22,975 patients. The following regimens were included in the analysis: Concomitant quadruple bismuth treatment (bismuth quadruple therapy), concomitant quadruple nonbismuth treatment (nonbismuth quadruple therapy), high-dose amoxicillin double treatment (Amox-dual therapy), levofloxacin-containing treatment (Levo-therapy), reverse hybrid therapy (R-hybrid therapy), sequential quadruple treatment (sequential therapy), standard triple treatment (triple therapy), and vonoprazan-containing therapy (Vono-triple therapy).
Statistically significant results were found with Vono-triple therapy versus triple therapy (odds ratio, 3.80; 95% confidence interval, 1.62-8.94), sequential therapy versus triple therapy (OR, 1.79; 95% CI, 1.26-2.53), nonbismuth quadruple therapy versus triple therapy (OR, 2.08; 95% CI, 1.45-2.98), bismuth quadruple therapy versus triple therapy (OR, 1.47; 95% CI, 1.02-2.11), and Levo-therapy versus triple therapy (OR, 1.79; 95% CI, 1.26-2.53).
In the overall data, mean cure rates greater than 90% were seen only in Vono-triple therapy (91.4%; 95% CI, 88.5-93.5%) and R-hybrid therapy (93.6%; 95% CI, 90.4-96.8%). Cure rates were lower for Nonbismuth quadruple therapy (84.3%; 95% CI, 82.7-85.8%), Levo-therapy (83.8%; 95% CI, 82.1-85.4%), Sequential therapy (83.7%; 95% CI, 82.7-84.7%), bismuth quadruple therapy (81.3%; 95% CI, 79.5-83.1%), Amox-dual therapy (80.2%; 75.3%-84.4%), and triple therapy (75.7%; 95% CI, 74.9-76.4%). Levo-therapy performed best in Western countries (88.5%; 95% CI, 86.5-90.5%) and West Asia (88.4%; 95% CI, 84.6-91.1%). R-hybrid therapy performed best in East Asia (93.6%; 95% CI, 90.4-96.8%).
A surface under the cumulative ranking (SUCRA) value, which represents the efficacy of the intervention compared to an ideal intervention, was 92.4% for Vono-triple therapy. The second highest SUCRA value was for 68.8% for nonbismuth quadruple therapy. The SUCRA value of standard triple therapy was 4.7%.
A key limitation to the study is that Vono-triple therapy was tested only in Japan, and requires additional study in other geographic regions.
The study received support from the Department of Veteran Affairs. The authors have consulted for and received research funding from various pharmaceutical companies.