Sleeve gastrectomy (SG) and Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) each led to good and sustainable weight loss 10 years later, although reflux was more prevalent after SG, according to the Sleeve vs. Bypass (SLEEVEPASS) randomized clinical trial.
At 10 years, there were no statistically significant between-procedure differences in type 2 diabetes remission, dyslipidemia, or obstructive sleep apnea, but hypertension remission was greater with RYGB.
However, importantly, the cumulative incidence of Barrett’s esophagus was similar after both procedures (4%) and markedly lower than reported in previous trials (14%-17%).
To their knowledge, this is the largest randomized controlled trial with the longest follow-up comparing these two laparoscopic bariatric surgeries, Paulina Salminen, MD, PhD, and colleagues write in their study published online in JAMA Surgery.
They aimed to clarify the “controversial issues” of long-term gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) symptoms, endoscopic esophagitis, and Barrett’s esophagus after SG vs. RYGB.
The findings showed that “there was no difference in the prevalence of Barrett’s esophagus, contrary to previous reports of alarming rates of Barrett’s [esophagus] after sleeve gastrectomy,” Dr. Salminen from Turku (Finland) University Hospital, told this news organization in an email.
“However, our results also show that esophagitis and GERD symptoms are significantly more prevalent after sleeve [gastrectomy], and GERD is an important factor to be considered in the preoperative assessment of bariatric surgery and procedure choice,” she said.
The takeaway is that “we have two good procedures providing good and sustainable 10-year results for both weight loss and remission of comorbidities” for severe obesity, a major health risk, Dr. Salminen summarized.
10-year data analysis
Long-term outcomes from randomized clinical trials of laparoscopic SG vs. RYGB are limited, and recent studies have shown a high incidence of worsening of de novo GERD, esophagitis, and Barrett’s esophagus, after laparoscopic SG, Dr. Salminen and colleagues write.
To investigate, they analyzed 10-year data from SLEEVEPASS, which had randomized 240 adult patients with severe obesity to either SG or RYGB at three hospitals in Finland during 2008-2010.
At baseline, 121 patients were randomized to SG and 119 to RYGB. They had a mean age of 48 years, a mean body mass index of 45.9 kg/m2, and 70% were women.
Two patients never had the surgery, and at 10 years, 10 patients had died of causes unrelated to bariatric surgery.
At 10 years, 193 of the 288 remaining patients (85%) completed the follow-up for weight loss and other comorbidity outcomes, and 176 of 228 (77%) underwent gastroscopy.
The primary study endpoint of the trial was percent excess weight loss (%EWL). At 10 years, the median %EWL was 43.5% after SG vs. 50.7% after RYGB, with a wide range for both procedures (roughly 2%-110% excess weight loss). Mean estimate %EWL was not equivalent, with it being 8.4% in favor of RYGB.
After SG and RYGB, there were no statistically significant differences in type 2 diabetes remission (26% and 33%, respectively), dyslipidemia (19% and 35%, respectively), or obstructive sleep apnea (16% and 31%, respectively).
Hypertension remission was superior after RYGB (8% vs. 24%; P = .04).
Esophagitis was more prevalent after SG (31% vs. 7%; P < .001).