Many patients experience neuropsychiatric symptoms following stroke. There is tremendous variation in the type, severity, and timeline of these symptoms, which have the potential to significantly impact patients’ quality of life. Some symptoms occur as a direct result of ischemic injury to brain structures regulating behavior, executive function, perception, or affect. Other symptoms occur indirectly due to the patient’s often-difficult experiences with the health care system, disrupted routines, or altered poststroke functional abilities. Psychiatric symptoms are not as easily recognized as classic stroke symptoms (such as hemiparesis) and are frequently overlooked, especially in the acute phase. However, these symptoms can negatively influence patients’ interpersonal relationships, rehabilitation, and employment.
Patients and families may not realize certain symptoms are stroke-related and may not discuss them with their clinicians. It is important to ask about and recognize psychiatric symptoms in patients who have experienced a stroke so you can provide optimal education and treatment. In this article, we review the types of psychiatric symptoms associated with strokes in specific brain regions (Table1-10). We also describe symptoms that do not appear directly related to the anatomical structures affected by the infarct, including delirium, psychosis, depression, anxiety, and posttraumatic stress.
Symptoms associated with stroke in specific regions
Frontal lobe strokes
The frontal lobes are the largest lobes in the brain, and damage to areas within these lobes can cause behavioral and personality changes. Lesions in the lateral frontal cortex can cause aprosodia (difficulty expressing or comprehending variations in tone of voice), which can lead to communication errors. Lateral frontal cortex injury can cause executive dysfunction and a lack of empathy1 as well as trouble with attention, planning, and self-regulation that may affect daily functioning. Strokes affecting the superior and inferior mesial cortices may result in apathy, lack of motivation, altered self-regulation, altered emotional processing, and disinhibition. Patients who experience a basal forebrain stroke may exhibit confabulation, reduced motivation, and delusions such as Capgras syndrome (the belief that a person or place has been replaced by an exact copy) and reduplicative paramnesia (the belief that a place has been either moved, duplicated, or exists in 2 places simultaneously). Strokes involving the orbital cortex can be associated with personality changes, impulsivity, poor social judgment, reduced empathy, altered self-regulation, lack of goal-directed behavior, and environmental dependency.
Some strokes may occur primarily in the subcortical white matter within the frontal lobes. Symptoms may be due to a single stroke with sudden onset, or due to repeated ischemic events that accumulate over time, as seen with microvascular disease. In the case of microvascular disease, the onset of symptoms may be insidious and the course progressive. Infarcts in the subcortical area can also cause personality changes (though typically more subtle when compared to orbitofrontal strokes), reduced emotions, poor empathy, and irritability.1 Patients may lack insight into some of or all these symptoms following a frontal lobe infarct, which makes it critical to gather collateral information from the patient’s friends or family.
Parietal lobe strokes
Symptomatology from parietal strokes depends on whether the stroke affects the dominant or nondominant hemisphere. Dominant parietal lesions cause language deficits, and psychiatric symptoms may be difficult to elucidate due to the patient’s inability to communicate.2 On the other hand, patients with nondominant parietal stroke may have neglect of, or inattention to, the opposite (typically left) side.3 This often manifests as a reluctance to use the affected limb or limbs, in some cases despite a lack of true weakness or motor dysfunction. In addition, patients may also have visual and/or tactile inattention towards the affected side, despite a lack of gross visual or sensory impairment.2 In rare cases, a patient’s stroke may be misdiagnosed as a functional disorder due to the perceived unwillingness to use a neurologically intact limb. In severe cases, patients may not recognize an affected extremity as their own. Patients are also frequently unaware of deficits affecting their nondominant side and may argue with those attempting to explain their deficit. Anosodiaphoria—an abnormal lack of concern regarding their deficits—may also be observed. Additionally, aprosodia, flat affect, and personality changes may result from strokes affecting the nondominant hemisphere, which can impact the patient’s relationships and social functioning.3
Occipital lobe strokes
While negative or loss-of-function symptomatology is one of the hallmarks of stroke, occipital lobe infarcts can pose an exception. Although vision loss is the most common symptom with occipital lobe strokes, some patients experience visual hallucinations that may occur acutely or subacutely. In the acute phase, patients may report hallucinations of varied description,4 including poorly formed areas of color, scotomas, metamorphopsia (visual distortion in which straight lines appear curved), more complex and formed hallucinations and/or palinoptic images (images or brief scenes that continue to be perceived after looking away). These hallucinations, often referred to as release phenomena or release hallucinations, are thought to result from disinhibition of the visual cortex, which then fires spontaneously.
Hallucinations are associated with either infarction or hemorrhage in the posterior cerebral artery territory. In some cases, the hallucinations may take on a formed, complex appearance, and Charles Bonnet syndrome (visual hallucinations in the setting of vision loss, with insight into the hallucinations) has been identified in a small portion of patients.5
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