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Interleukin-1 β and TNF-α hamper antidepressant response in MDD

Key clinical point: In patients with major depressive disorder (MDD), higher baseline levels of interleukin (IL)-1 β predicted nonresponse to antidepressant drug treatments administered upon clinical need in a specialized hospital clinical setting; effects of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α were significant against response.

Major finding: Generalized linear model showed a strong significant main effect of IL-1 β against response and weaker, but significant, effects of TNF-α against and of IL-12 toward response (P less than .0001 for all). In multivariate model, the effect of IL-1 β remained highly significant (P = .0041). Inspection of estimated values revealed that the predicted probability to respond to treatment was highly dispersed at low levels of IL-1 β and stratified toward nonresponse when IL-1 β was high.

Study details: The data come from a study of 27 inflammatory biomarkers in 108 patients with MDD treated with antidepressant monotherapy for 4 weeks upon clinical need in a specialized hospital setting.

Disclosures: The study was funded by the Italian Ministry of Health. The authors declared no conflicts of interest.


Benedetti F et al. Eur Neuropsychopharmacol. 2020 Nov 13. doi: 10.1016/j.euroneuro.2020.11.009.